As consideration for selecting the type of pier structure, 3 types of structures that are commonly used are selected, they are Deck On Pile, www.cmilc.com/products/ultracomposite-sheet-piling, and Caisson. Sheet Pile structure is a type of structure that does not use the natural slope of the soil. In this sheet piling case, the forces due to differences in elevation between the pier floor and the bottom of the shipping channel are held back by the retaining wall structure. Inclined piles are still needed to withstand the lateral forces of a ship that is anchored or to help the sheet pile withstand the lateral ground pressure. This sheet pile structure can be planned using anchors or without anchors.
Apart from sheet piles, the concrete wall diaphragm can also act as a barrier to lateral soil pressure. Besides that, the diaphragm wall can also be planned to receive a vertical load from the pier floor, because this wall is also a structural reinforced concrete wall. Barrette pile can be used in this structure, which serves as an anchor for the diaphragm wall, both connected by tie beam or tie slab system. The deck on the pile structure uses piles as the foundation for the pier floor. All loads on the dock floor (including forces due to berthing and mooring are received by the dock floor system and the pile height. Under the wharf floor, the slope of the ground is made according to its natural slope and is coated with reinforcement (revetment) to prevent erosion of the ground due to water movement caused by ship maneuvers. To withstand the considerable lateral forces due to berthing and mooring of the ship, if necessary it can be installed with inclined piles.
Caisson structure is a type of gravity structure wharf, which in principle uses the structure’s weight to withstand vertical and horizontal forces, especially to withstand ground pressure. Caisson consists of reinforced concrete blocks that are made on land and installed at the jetty by floating and arranged in the planned position, then submerged by filling the blocks with sea sand or rock.